Penetration Grades

Before, the penetration level was characterized dependent with the understanding that warm affectability in the bitumen utilized in street development was zero. Bitumen is a thermoplastic material, implying that it gets flexible or malleable over a particular temperature and gets back to a strong state after cooling.

Infiltration level bitumen is fundamentally utilized in street surfacing. Bitumen with lower infiltration grade is utilized in the areas with warm environment while higher entrance grade is utilized in colder climate.

Our Company is equipped for creating various levels of street surfacing bitumen in consistence with public and worldwide norms in its plants. penetration grade bitumen is reviewed dependent on infiltration and mellowing point tests. This table depicts the actual properties of penetration grade bitumen dependent on European principles. Infiltration level bitumen is primarily utilized in street development. During the most recent twenty years of the twentieth century, most street development projects showed tendency for strong bitumen which brings about more viable black-top.

Test Methodology 30-40 40-50 60-70 85-100 100-120
Density ASTM D-7 1/01-1/06 1/01-1/06 1/01-1/06 1-01-1106 1-1105
Penetration Rate at 25te ASTM D-5 30-40 40-50 60-70 85-100 100-120
Softening Point °C ASTM D-36 55-63 52-60 49-56 45-52 42-49
Duallity at 26°C (cm) - Min ASTM D-113 100 100-60 100 100 100
Flash Point °C - Min ASTM D-92 250 250 250 250 250
Solubility in Disulfide %wt ASTM D-4 99/5 99/5 99/5 99/5 99/5
Stain Tess AASMTO T 102 Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative
Weight Loss by Heating % wt - Max ASTM D-6 0/2 0/2 0/2 0/2 0/2
Penetration Loss by Heating % - Max ASTM D-6 - D-6 20 20 20 20 20

VG Bitumen

Bitumen is evaluated dependent on outright thickness at 60 ºC or kinematic consistency at 135 ºC. The SI actual unit of dynamic thickness is Poise and kinematic consistency is communicated in Centi Stokes. Unadulterated bitumen has been reviewed dependent on AASHTO-M226 and ASTM-D3381 norms. Tables 1-1 to 1-6 show tests and rules.

Technical specifications of pure bitumen based on viscosity at 60 degC (AASHTO-M226)

Viscosity    test
16000+40008000+20004000+10002000+5001000+250Viscosity at 60 C
550400275200140Viscosity at 135 C
2020254065Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds
52504540-Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds. minimum
757575100 **100 **Ductility at 25 C, 5cm/min
Test on Primary Bitumen     
238232227219205Flash point, Cleveland open cup
99/099/099/099/099/0Solubility in trichloroethylene
**AASHTO T240 may be used but as a comparing method.
**if the ductility is less than 100 at 25 oC, the meterial will be accepted if itsductility at 15.6 oC is more than 100 cm at a pull rate of 5 cm/min.

Technical specifications of pure bitumen based on viscosity at 60 degC (AASHTO-M226)

Viscosity  test
4000+8003000+600 -2000+4001000+200500+100250+50
Test on the residue of thin bitumen layer     
Stain Test     
NegativeNaphtha Solvent    
NegativeNaphtha-Xylene Solvent, Xylene Percentage    
NegativeNaphtha-Xylene Solvent, Xylene Percentage   

(1) If the ductility is less than 100 at 25 °C. the material will be accepted if its ductility at 15.6 °C is more than 100 cm at a pull rate of 5 cm/min.

Performance Grade (PG)

From October 1987 to March 1993, Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) was led in the United States. The program was centered around the improvement of new strategies for evaluating the exhibition of bitumen covers. The examination brought about the improvement of another technique known as Superior Performing Asphalt Pavements (Superpave).

The fundamental particulars of this technique included:

  • Utilizing the productivity basis for bitumen folios and black-top cement
  • Thinking about climatic conditions in use of bitumen

The issues concentrated in this technique are as per the following:

  • Winter low-temperature bitumen breaking not identified with stacking
  • Winter low-temperature bitumen breaking not identified with stacking
  • Summer high-temperature bitumen misshapening because of stacking

The essential target behind deciding the new determinations was to work with the acquisition of bitumen results of better quality in light of the fact that these details will plainly depict the item for possible purchasers.

The new determinations likewise ensure the appropriate exhibition of bitumen in covering. Climatic conditions are significant components in the effectiveness of covering, yet restricted exploration has been directed on this issue because of restricted time and very comparative climate conditions. Additionally, they would not be exact if the stacking factor isn't mulled over.

The makers from one side of the planet to the other, has been begun to deliver this kind of bitumen which POC is an unmistakable in such manner. Having introduced SHRP frameworks, our Company is equipped for offering bitumen to its clients dependent on PG technique. It worth to remind that previously, infiltration was utilized as a factor for bitumen evaluating.

In execution grade, the attention is on the mechanical detail of bitumen while in entrance grade, test boundaries are included. Today, a PG is characterized for polymer changed bitumen and unadulterated bitumen dependent on ecological conditions and temperature. A more extensive PG range implies higher opposition and more good particulars . our Company has the ability to create every one of these evaluations. This organization initially directed environment drafting to indicate the suitable bitumen for various topographical zones.

Performance Grades Bitumen

High Temperature Performance Low Temperature Performance
PG 46 -46, -40,-34"
PG 52 -46,-40, -34, -28,-22,-16 ,-10
PG 58 -40 -34 -28 -22 -16 -10
PG 64 -40 -34 -28 -22 -16 -10
PG 70 -40 -34 -28 -22 -16 -10
PG 76 -34' -28' -22' -16' -10
PG 82 -34 -28 -22 -16 -10

Cutback Bitumen

Bitumen is "CUTBACK" by adding controlled measures of oil distillates, like lamp oil. Type and nature of Cutback relies upon type and measure of dissolvable in the unadulterated bitumen. The more dissolvable in Cutback bitumen, prompts the greater consistency in bitumen. Reduction bitumen is utilized when there is restricted admittance to warming hardware, bitumen decay in high temperature, bitumen cooling all through working, laborers security, fire and tedious. This sort of bitumen is utilized in street tasks for surfacing and asphalt. Medium-Curing (MC) bitumen is accomplished from settling unadulterated bitumen into lamp oil.

Reduction bitumen is arranged dependent on consistency grade. It is separated into three classifications:

Fast Curing (RC)

The reduction bitumen is known as quick relieving (RC) if the bitumen is settled in fuel. The explanation is that vanishing happens rapidly and the bitumen is saved. RC reductions are isolated into RC250, RC70, RC800 and RC3000 classes. The numbers show the consistency of bitumen. Naphtha could be blended in with bitumen 80/100 for more weakening.

Medium Curing (MC)

MC reductions are set up by tackling bitumen in lamp fuel which vanishes more gradually than gas. MC reductions are partitioned into five gatherings with their consistency differing from 3-4 to 6,000 at 60 degrees Centigrade. This sort of bitumen might be accomplished by settling bitumen 85/100 in Kerosene.

Moderate Curing (SC)

Moderate restoring reduction might be accomplished from tackling bitumen in gasoil or fuel oil or straightforwardly from refining of raw petroleum. SC reductions don't vanish under ordinary climate conditions, however they step by step experience changes in their atomic structure. This sort of bitumen is accomplished from addressing bitumen 85/100 in weighty dissolvable, for example, Gasoil or Fuel oil which won't just dissipate yet in addition make it hard. Sorts of this sort of bitumen incorporates SC 70, SC 250, SC800 and SC 3000.

MC250 Physical Specifications

Test Method MC-250
Kinematic Viscosity at 60 •c ASTM D- 2170 250-50
Penetration at 25 • ASTM D- 5 120-250 
Ductility at 25 • ASTM D- 113 100 min
Flash Point {TOC), c ASTM 0- 3143 250 min
Solubility in triclorethylene,%wt ASTM D- 2042 99 min
Water Content,%wt ASTM D- 95 0.2 max
Distillation at 260 •c,vol% _ 20 max
Distillation at 260 •c,vol% _ 5_55
Distillation at 316 c.vol% _ 60-90
Residue fi'om distilation at 360 c.vol% - 67 min _ 67 min


Whatever the end use, application conditions as a rule expect bitumen to act as a versatile fluid. On a fundamental level, there are three different ways to make profoundly gooey bitumen into a low-thickness fluid:

  • Warmth it
  • Break up it in solvents
  • Emulsify it
Bitumen emulsions are two-staged frameworks comprising of bitumen, water, and at least one added substances to aid arrangement and adjustment and to change the properties of the emulsion. The bitumen is scattered all through the water stage as discrete globules, regularly 0.1 to 50 microns in measurement, which are held in suspension by electrostatic charges settled by an emulsifier. Bitumen emulsions can be partitioned into four classes. The initial two are, by a wide margin, the most broadly utilized:
  • Cationic emulsions
  • Anionic emulsions
  • Non-ionic emulsions
  • Earth settled emulsions
The terms anionic and cationic come from the electrical charges on the bitumen globules. This recognizable proof framework begins from one of the crucial laws of power – like charges repulse, not at all like charges draw in. In the event that an electrical potential is applied between two cathodes submerged in an emulsion containing contrarily charged particles of bitumen, they will relocate to the anode. Around there, the emulsion is depicted as "anionic". Alternately, in a framework containing emphatically charged particles bitumen, they will move to the cathode and the emulsion is depicted as "cationic". The bitumen particles in a non-ionic emulsion are unbiased and, consequently, won't relocate to one or the other shaft. These kinds of emulsion are infrequently
Bitumen emulsions are isolated into three classes regarding setting:
  • Quick setting (RS)
  • Medium-setting (MS)
  • Moderate setting (SS)
Cationic RS emulsion is as of now the broadly utilized class in Middle east. Emulsion setting is irreversible marvel which may happen because of the vanishing of the water stage or the fascination of water by stone materials. All through this wonder, the water stage vanishes and bitumen particles will have less space. At that point, the bitumen slowly moves towards the surface or covers the total.

Cationic Emulsions

These emulsions are known as cationic in light of the fact that their bitumen totals convey positive charges by utilizing Ammonium salts or Amines compounds. They are isolated into the accompanying classifications:
Cationic Emulsions
css -1 CMS -1 CRS -1
css -1h CMS -2h CRS -2

a. C Stands for cationic
b. Letters and numbers are the same as explained for anionic emulsions

a. C Stands for cationic
b. Letters and numbers are the same as explained for anionic emulsions

Anionic Emulsions

These emulsions,which carry negative charge, are divided into the following categories:
Anionic Emulsions
RS -1 MS -1 SS -1
RS -2 MS -2 SS -1h
HFRS -2 MS -2h
HFMS -2h
HFMS -2s

a. HF, which stands for high-float, indicates the bitumen coating of aggregates
b. pure bitumen in the emulsions pure bitumen in the emulsions
c. H indicates the use of pure bitumen in emulsion
d. S indicates the usability of bitumen for mixing with sand materials.